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'Straintronic spin neuron' may greatly improve neural computing
(Phys.org)—Researchers have proposed a new type of artificial neuron called a "straintronic spin neuron" that could serve as the basic unit of artificial neural networks—systems modeled on human brains that have the ability to compute, learn, and adapt. Compared to previous designs, the new artificial neuron is potentially orders of magnitude more energy-efficient, more robust against thermal degradation, and fires at a faster rate.
Bonelike 3-D silicon synthesized for potential use with medical devices
Researchers have developed a new approach for better integrating medical devices with biological systems. The researchers, led by Bozhi Tian, assistant professor in chemistry at the University of Chicago, have developed the first skeleton-like silicon spicules ever prepared via chemical processes.
Peppermint oil and cinnamon could help treat and heal chronic wounds
Infectious colonies of bacteria called biofilms that develop on chronic wounds and medical devices can cause serious health problems and are tough to treat. But now scientists have found a way to package antimicrobial compounds from peppermint and cinnamon in tiny capsules that can both kill biofilms and actively promote healing. The researchers say the new material, reported in the journal ACS Nano, could be used as a topical antibacterial treatment and disinfectant.
Developing new methods to detect nanoparticles in food
The production and characterisation of reference materials to detect silver nanoparticles in meat is feasible, a recent experiment has found. Using methods developed through the NANOLYSE project, two concentrations of silver nanoparticles were used to spike chicken meat, with the aim of producing a set of reference materials to support the detection of nanoparticles in food.
Ultra-thin, all-inorganic molecular nanowires successfully compounded
The development of metal oxide-based molecular wires is important for fundamental research and potential practical applications. However, examples of these materials are rare. Researchers from Hokkaido University, Kanagawa University, Hiroshima University and Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute/SPring-8, Japan, successfully created ultrathin all-inorganic molecular nanowires, composed of a repeating hexagonal molecular unit made of Mo and Te; the diameters of these wires were only 1.2 nm.
Nanotech transforms cotton fibers into modern marvel
Juan Hinestroza and his students live in a cotton-soft nano world, where they create clothing that kills bacteria, conducts electricity, wards off malaria, captures harmful gas and weaves transistors into shirts and dresses.
Magnetic hyperthermia, an auxiliary tool in cancer treatments
Hyperthermia (increase in body temperature) has been used for centuries to combat tumours and reduce their effects. The aim of research by the physicist Eneko Garaio is hyperthermia but using a different system (magnetic nanoparticles) to increase body temperature. These nanoparticles absorb energy from magnetic fields and convert it into heat which is used to raise the temperature in tumours and combat them. A paper on this subject by Garaio and other authors, published in 2014 in the journal Measurement Science and Technology, has recently received the Outstanding Paper Award.
Researchers develop ultrahigh-resolution 3D microscopy technique for electric fields
Using a single molecule as a sensor, scientists in Jülich have successfully imaged electric potential fields with unrivalled precision. The ultrahigh-resolution images provide information on the distribution of charges in the electron shells of single molecules and even atoms. The 3D technique is also contact-free. The first results achieved using "scanning quantum dot microscopy" have been published in the current issue of Physical Review Letters. The related publication was chosen as the Editor's suggestion and selected as a Viewpoint in the science portal Physics. The technique is relevant for diverse scientific fields including investigations into biomolecules and semiconductor materials.
Study reveals new method to develop more efficient drugs
A new study led by University of Kentucky researchers suggests a new approach to develop highly-potent drugs which could overcome current shortcomings of low drug efficacy and multi-drug resistance in the treatment of cancer as well as viral and bacterial infections.
Tiny wires could provide a big energy boost
Wearable electronic devices for health and fitness monitoring are a rapidly growing area of consumer electronics; one of their biggest limitations is the capacity of their tiny batteries to deliver enough power to transmit data. Now, researchers at MIT and in Canada have found a promising new approach to delivering the short but intense bursts of power needed by such small devices.
Graphene sheets enable ultrasound transmitters
University of California, Berkeley, physicists have used graphene to build lightweight ultrasonic loudspeakers and microphones, enabling people to mimic bats or dolphins' ability to use sound to communicate and gauge the distance and speed of objects around them.
Could black phosphorus be the next silicon?
As scientists continue to hunt for a material that will make it possible to pack more transistors on a chip, new research from McGill University and Université de Montréal adds to evidence that black phosphorus could emerge as a strong candidate.
Project uses crowd computing to improve water filtration
Nearly 800 million people worldwide don't have access to safe drinking water, and some 2.5 billion people live in precariously unsanitary conditions, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Together, unsafe drinking water and the inadequate supply of water for hygiene purposes contribute to almost 90% of all deaths from diarrheal diseases—and effective water sanitation interventions are still challenging scientists and engineers.
Surfing a wake of light: Researchers observe and control light wakes for the first time
When a duck paddles across a pond or a supersonic plane flies through the sky, it leaves a wake in its path. Wakes occur whenever something is traveling through a medium faster than the waves it creates—in the duck's case water waves, in the plane's case shock waves, otherwise known as sonic booms.
Nanomedicine in the fight against thrombotic diseases
Future Science Group (FSG) today announced the publication of a new article in Future Science OA, covering the use of nanocarriers and microbubbles in drug delivery for thrombotic disease.
Engineering the world's smallest nanocrystal
In the natural world, proteins use the process of biomineralization to incorporate metallic elements into tissues, using it to create diverse materials such as seashells, teeth, and bones. However, the way proteins actually do this is not well understood.
A stretchy mesh heater for sore muscles
If you suffer from chronic muscle pain a doctor will likely recommend for you to apply heat to the injury. But how do you effectively wrap that heat around a joint? Korean Scientists at the Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS) in Seoul, along with an international team, have come up with an ingenious way of creating therapeutic heat in a light, flexible design.
Polymer mold makes perfect silicon nanostructures
Using molds to shape things is as old as humanity. In the Bronze Age, the copper-tin alloy was melted and cast into weapons in ceramic molds. Today, injection and extrusion molding shape hot liquids into everything from car parts to toys.
Scientists use nanoparticles to shut down mechanism that drives cancer growth
When scientists develop cancer therapies, they target the features that make the disease deadly: tumor growth, metastasis, recurrence and drug resistance. In epithelial cancers—cancers of the breast, ovaries, prostate, skin and bladder, which begin in the organs' lining—these processes are controlled by a genetic program called epithelial–mesenchymal transition.
Better memory with faster lasers
DVDs and Blu-ray disks contain so-called phase-change materials that morph from one atomic state to another after being struck with pulses of laser light, with data "recorded" in those two atomic states. Using ultrafast laser pulses that speed up the data recording process, Caltech researchers adopted a novel technique, ultrafast electron crystallography (UEC), to visualize directly in four dimensions the changing atomic configurations of the materials undergoing the phase changes. In doing so, they discovered a previously unknown intermediate atomic state—one that may represent an unavoidable limit to data recording speeds.
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